The Effects of Nutrient Pollution
Nutrient pollution is a costly and challenging environmental problem, and is caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the air and water. Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients that are natural parts of aquatic ecosystems. Nitrogen is also the most abundant element in the air we breathe. Nitrogen and phosphorus support the growth of algae and aquatic plants, which provide food and habitat for fish, shellfish and smaller organisms that live in water. But when too much nitrogen and phosphorus enter the environment – usually from a wide range of human activities – the air and water can become polluted.
Nutrient pollution has impacted many streams, rivers, lakes, bays and coastal waters for the past several decades, resulting in environmental and human health issues, and impacting the economy. Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in the water causes algae to grow faster than ecosystems can handle. Significant increases in algae harm water quality, food resources and habitats, and decrease the oxygen that fish and other aquatic life need to survive. Large growths of algae are called algal blooms and they can severely reduce or eliminate oxygen in the water, leading to illnesses in fish and the death of large numbers of fish. Some algal blooms are harmful to humans because they produce elevated toxins and bacterial growth that can make people sick if they come into contact with polluted water, consume tainted fish or shellfish, or drink contaminated water.
This process is also known as eutrophication. Excessive amounts of nutrients can lead to more serious problems such as low levels of oxygen dissolved in the water. Severe algal growth blocks light that is needed for plants, such as seagrasses, to grow. When the algae and seagrass die, they decay. In the process of decay, the oxygen in the water is used up and this leads to low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water. This, in turn, can kill fish, crabs, oysters, and other aquatic animals.
Nutrients come from a variety of different sources. They can occur naturally as a result of weathering of rocks and soil in the watershed and they can also come from the ocean due to mixing of water currents. Scientists are most interested in the nutrients that are related to people living in the coastal zone because human-related inputs are much greater than natural inputs. Because there are increasingly more people living in coastal areas, there are more nutrients entering our coastal waters from wastewater treatment facilities, runoff from land in urban areas during rains, and from farming.
Victor Krantz is a master grower for The Bucket Company. He has been involved with the agriculture industry for 30 years producing a wide variety of food crops and setting up commercial greenhouses in many different states. You can find them on Instagram @thebucketcompany or @cookiesandcreamfarm. Victor may be contacted directly at 727.424.0132.
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6 Reasons Why Software Is Crucial To Scale Cannabis Cultivation Business
As more states make the sale of cannabis products legal, there is a need for businesses to have tools to effectively manage their production and finances. If you are in the cannabis business, therefore, you need tools that will keep your operations in full compliance with transparent documentation and reporting.
Fortunately, there is cannabis cultivation software like trym.io that you can leverage. However, to get the most out of these solutions, you need to understand their features and capabilities. Without further ado, here are 6 reasons why software is critical to anybody who wishes to scale his or her cannabis cultivation business.
- Data Analytics
To make strategic decisions about your cannabis business, you should be able to capture and analyze your operational data in real time. This is where software comes in; it can help you access and analyze important metrics in your cultivation, manufacturing, transportation, and retail operations. For instance, by using a software, you can establish the strains that are more cost-effective to grow and profitable.
- Crop Management
Cannabis software gives you the capabilities to track production, growth, and overall revenue. As hinted above, for instance, the software can help you track the development of different strains with regards to key milestones, dates, and reminders. Most software also features automatic reminders, which can help you track and monitor vital components of plant management—from watering schedules, light cycles to the application of pesticides.
The software comes equipped with robust financial reporting tools that can help you handle complicated realities in the cannabis business. For instance, the tools can help account for the tax differences among states while ensuring that you are compliant with IRS guidelines.
Most seed to sale solutions emphasizes on security, preventing sale or handling of cannabis products by unauthorized people. More advanced software even comes with biometric technology that can recognize fingerprints and physical signatures to further restrict access.
As hinted above, using cannabis-specific software can help you maintain compliance with insights across the supply chain. With the software, you can track, monitor, and record data across different jurisdictions. In today’s cannabis industry, not having a tool to help you track and report multiple sets of compliance guidelines is a big mistake as you’ll have lots of headaches and expenses to comply within the long term.
There is software that comes with a built-in point-of-sale-sale system that allows your clients to checkout via simple prompts. This streamlines your checkout process, making life easier for your clients and allowing you to capture more data on every customer interaction.
Software is critical to anybody who is looking to scale his or her cannabis cultivation business as it can help you improve day-to-day operations, save a substantial amount of money, and remain compliant across multiple legal jurisdictions. However, not all businesses have the same needs. Dispensaries, breeders, and delivery services require specific aspects or features in their software.
Tips to Choose the Best Marijuana Seeds for Desired Results
As marijuana usage is sliding in the society and it’s becoming legalized in more states, many people are heading to take a plunge in growing their own marijuana field. And the desired outcome? Well, to have the best crop at the harvest time.
Marijuana is expensive, so it is a good decision to have your own green thumb. But this is not easy! Even if you end up somehow growing the marijuana, even then there is no guarantee that you will get the desired results.
There are so many varieties of marijuana seeds to choose from that selecting the best option for the desired results can be confusing. But don’t worry – we have a solution for you!
Here are given the best tips to choose the right marijuana seeds so that you can harvest your desired results:
Genetics – Back to Biology:
Genetics never go out of bracket when the ‘kind’ of a plant is in question– same is the case with cannabis. If you are growing a marijuana field then all your efforts put in to perfectly plow the field, and rightly fertilizing the crop will go in vain if you have not considered the genetics of seeds.
You need high-quality feminized seeds to get the best results with premium quality and high quantity yield.
Potency – Kind of High:
Marijuana is always associated with getting ‘high’, but there are different levels of ‘high’. And your seed selection will determine the kind of ‘high’ your marijuana crop will punch.
If you are looking for high-level of ‘high’, then buy the seeds with a high percentage of THC – the element responsible for inducing psychoactive effects.
However, if you are growing marijuana for medical purpose, the seeds with the lowest THC or with no THC are the call.
Difficulty – Your Skills Matter:
Having the desire to grow marijuana is one thing, but having the right abilities to handle marijuana field is a totally different thing.
Some strains are shy of strong sun rays’ exposure, and some strains love to get pampered with complete nutrient care. Some strains need time to grow, while others take less time. And all these factors are essential to consider while selecting the seed.
Space – Area You Have:
Different seeds, with different techniques, grow to a different height. Go for a seed which will grow plant that fits your space. Though plant size depends on the root system, nutrients, and pruning, but the genetics of the seed is also essential to determine the size of the plant.
Instead of growing a jungle of marijuana plants, it is better to choose seeds and growing techniques that grow plants to fit your available space.
Legalization of marijuana doesn’t mean that you can go for any kind of weed irrespective of quality. The pleasure obtained from pure and high-quality weed is unbeatable.
Select the right seeds, grow the best deal, and smoke it as you wish! Isn’t it what you want?
Best Herbs to Pair With Marijuana
Do you like to smoke marijuana? What are your reasons for doing it? Well, marijuana smoking has increased over the years, and the figures are staggering. Marijuana might be infamous in the first place but is famous for all the right reasons in the medical world owing to its medical advantages.
Herbs are natural plants that are famous for their aromatic nature and for garnishing food. It is important to know that herbs are now paired with marijuana to give smokers a soothing experience. The idea of e-cigarettes had grabbed people so quickly that now there are ways and means to enrich the experience with zero health risk. If you are looking to buy an e-cigarette for a great experience, then you can visit Grasscity online headshop to know about the offerings that they have for people.
Best herbs to pair with marijuana:
If you have visited North America, then you will come across the popularity of this plant. Though, expensive in cost, this flower has great sedative qualities and acts as a great catalyst in boosting one’s smoking experience.
Guessed from the name? Yes, this herb gives mild fizz to cats, but it doesn’t do the same for humans. However, this herb is still famous for relaxing people and making them comfortable. If you want to buy this herb then don’t worry, it is available in most fresh stores of flowers.
Were you looking for the best aromatic herb in town? Congrats! You just got there. Known for its beautiful aromatic fragrance and great taste, this herb is famous for its therapeutic properties. This herb is a great anti-depressant which means that it will instigate a great smoking experience.
St John’s Wart
Down the years, this herb has carved a great reputation for itself as a good anti-depressant. If you want to get the maximum benefit out of it, then vaporizing will do the honors for you. However, women must refrain from taking it as it has negative impacts on birth control medicines.
This herb is known for its partnership with beer. People who smoke have claimed that this plant has great sedative qualities and induces mild buzz in the body. As for the flavor, it’s earthy, sweet and a bit spicy. If you want to smoke marijuana then using it to blend will be a good idea.
This plant has qualities that are equivalent to green tea. This herb is known for its ravishing and energizing effect. If you want to feel energized and jazzed up after the smoking experience, then this herb is a must have as a blend.
Well, the list of most suitable herbs goes on. Marijuana smoking is an experience that relieves one from stress, anxiety, and depression. Before you make any informed choices, it is very pivotal that a suitable doctor be consulted for professional advice. Some herbs might not suit you which is why it is pivotal to be choosey.
How to Properly Store Marijuana
Do you keep weed at home in a tin, in the garage? Well, that’s not ideal. You wouldn’t store your milk in the cupboard, or your beer in the sunlight – so why would you store your weed incorrectly. Here is some great advice to store it in the right manner.
Avoid Using Plastic Baggies
You should not place your nugs in plastic baggies for several reasons. Placing your herbs in a plastic baggie could potentially crush your buds which removes the trichomes from the bud and decrease the potency of your herb.
Plastic should not be used to hold your herbs. Over time, the plastic will alter the taste of your herb. Additionally, plastic baggies do not prevent your herbs’ odor from escaping, making it a less than discreet storage container. Finally, plastic bags are ugly.
Choose Glass not Plastic
Airtight glass jars are the preferred storage containers for your herbs. Mason jars are the perfect solution because they can be found almost anywhere. Placing your marijuana in a glass container will prevent odors from entering or escaping and prevent oxygen from entering your container as well. Oxygen causes oxidation and can decrease the potency of your herbs.
When you place an item in a glass jar, you can rest assured that nothing will enter or escape once the lid is screwed on. Once your herbs are placed in jars, they will taste the same as when you bought them.
Store in a Cool, Dark Place
Glass jars allow light to enter which could potentially damage your herbs. Place your jar in a dark location such as a cupboard, a drawer or another location that remains dark throughout the day to prevent light from damaging your herbs. If your jar becomes too warm, it can cause condensation inside which can increase the risk for mold; so, make sure that your jar is stored in a cool location. Online store, Save on Cannabis, have a wide range of great options to store your cannabis properly.
Temperature and Humidity
Ideally, your herbs should be stored in a cool, dark location. Try to ensure your jar is stored in a location lower than 70 degrees. If your herbs are stored at temperatures above the upper 70s, the risk of mold increases. Humidity is also another thing to consider. Your marijuana should be store at a humidity level of around 60 percent. If humidity levels are above 65 percent, the risk of mold increases.
The Wonderful Sustainability of Hemp
With documentaries like The Inconvenient Truth and all of the talk of global warming, people are now starting to be increasingly more aware of how their habits impact the health of the planet over time. Previously, people had no qualms about driving their gas-guzzling hummers and throwing away bottled water by the pallet full, but now, a massive push for sustainability is on the way.
Deforestation and unsustainable farming practices, in general, have been on the radar for some time now. But then, the problem is that we still need the products these industries provide and we’ve yet to figure out a way to reduce their footprint on the environment. Many industrial hemp farms are now stepping up to the plate to show the world the use of hemp. Hemp is shaping up to be an excellent alternative for paper and textile material due to how versatile the stalky fibers can be used. That’s not all – the hemp plant is staggeringly sustainable and good for the environment in which it’s grown.
Can’t believe it? Here are some things worth knowing about hemp and the environment:
Hemp can stop deforestation.
One of the main applications for hemp is that it can be used in paper and just about every other application that wood fibers are used in, even fiberboard building materials. The beautiful thing about hemp is that the plant only takes three to four months to reach maturity, as opposed to the several yearlong life cycles of trees. A single acre of hemp can produce as much paper as four acres worth of trees and can be regrown every year without worry. This can take the burden off of existing forests and allow us to regrow the ones we’ve cut down, while still enjoying paper products every day.
It can detoxify the environment.
One of the most commonly cited arguments for why we should slow down our logging efforts is because trees are responsible for converting CO2 into usable oxygen, reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, did you know that hemp consumes four times as much CO2 as trees do? Because of the very short time it takes to grow hemp plants, they are incredibly effective at fighting excess CO2 in the air, and the plant can be grown nearly anywhere. Hemp detoxifies not only the air, but also the surrounding soil. The root system of hemp does a fantastic job at eliminating harmful chemicals from the surrounding soil and even has a good effect at removing radioactive elements. This was known after scientists discovered the hemp crop they planted at Chernobyl did wonders for the radioactivity of the soil it was planted in.
Conclusion In this world that’s increasingly plagued by poor practices and a general disregard for the environment, there’s a significant need for our unsustainable industries to be replaced by ones that help the environment and are easily renewed. Hemp is poised to take over the wood fiber industry because its strong, sturdy stalks can provide the same fibrous materials required, but at a fraction of the price and time commitment. As far as sustainable and useful products go, hemp reigns supreme.
THC vs CBD
CBD, also known as Cannabidiol is one of the chemical compounds that can be found in cannabis plants. The cannabis plant has 400 natural compounds, out of which 60 are unique. Cannabidiol is one of them. Despite the fact that it has numerous health benefits, many people still avoid it because they associate it with drugs.
Nonetheless, CBD is not considered a drug and once it is isolated it can be used for medicinal purposes. It also does not have the psychoactive effects of the THC chemical. This means that there are no negative side effects, and CBD is safe for everyone.
THC versus CBD
It is very important to understand that THC is the chemical compound of cannabis which is responsible for you “getting high”. This chemical has psychoactive effects, and it can either lead to a euphoric high or lead to negative side effects such as paranoia and anxiety. However, THC can help you with certain health problems such as chronic pain or skin conditions.
We should also add that THC can have some negative side effects, such as paranoia and anxiety and in some cases, it an even lead to depression. In addition to that, it can also cause short-term memory decrease and users might have time perception altered.
Meanwhile, CBD is another compound of the cannabis plants, but it can’t provide a high on its own. CBD oil can’t have more than .3% THC in it, which means that you are safe from all the negative side effects. Additionally, CBD has all the benefits of THC, which makes it the better alternative.
Where does CBD come from?
Since there is more than one plant in the cannabis family, there are multiple sources for CBD. However, the main ones remain marijuana and hemp. Despite the fact the CBD oil has the same properties, whether it is extracted from one plant or another, its legal status is different.
For example, if the source for CBD oil is marijuana, the substance might be illegal in some states. On the other hand, hemp leaves represent a CBD source that is usually accepted. Hemp has low THC (<0.3%) while marijuana has high THC (5% – 35%). You can find out more about this at cbdcentral.com.
CBD has multiple health benefits. For example, it can be used for chronic pain, especially since pain is usually caused by inflammation and CBD has powerful anti-inflammatory properties. CBD can be used for seizure relief and it can also help with anxiety, nausea and appetite problems. According to recent study, this oil may help counter withdrawal symptoms, whether we are talking about drugs or cigarettes.
Pick the Volcano Vaporizer If You Have Vaping Health Concerns
Vaping is the new trend when it comes to unlocking and enjoying the flavors and aromas in herbs and spices. It follows the same principles of vaporization used in cookery and aromatherapy. Vaporization is regarded as the best form of heating materials because it does not burn them like is the case with combustion. The result, therefore, is a fine mist instead of smoke. The mist will have a deep aroma and flavor and is a better alternative to smoke. The key is gentle heating which inhibits reaching the burning point of wood. As a result, you get to enjoy a healthy means of smoking with the full benefits of the herbs and spice you are vaping.
With the market awash with different vaping devices, it can be hard knowing which is the deal gadget to buy that will suit your needs. If you are looking for something that delivers in all aspects regarding vaporization, then the Volcano Vaporizer is one of the best options out there. It is a product of the Storz & Bickel Company located in Tuttlingen, Germany. It is demonstrating the aptitude of German ingenuity, providing a gentle and exquisite release that ensures each material in it reaches its full potential.
Based on the principles of vaporization that is void of combustion, it means that the end product does not have any harmful carcinogens. As such, the vapor is safe to inhale and will not pose the risk of cancer and other health issues associated with smoking.
The makers of the devices guarantee that there no Volcano Vaporizer health risks since the gadget is designed to gradually heat the materials inside with hot air set at a specific temperature. You can set the temperature to your preference so that you get the desired aroma and flavor in the vapor that is released into the air. It all works without burning the materials thus helping to preserve the aroma and inhibiting the production of harmful chemicals that pose health risks when inhaled. According to its engineering, the vaporizer never allows materials to burn, and therefore there is a safe release of aroma from the herbs and spices. As such, you get more out of them that you would get through combustion.
A special balloon is attached to the Volcano Vaporizer in which the vapor flows into once it is released. You can then remove the balloon once it is full and opt to release the mist into the air or inhale it directly. If you intend to release the vapor into the air, it is better to do so in a small, enclosed environment so that you can enjoy the full benefits as it diffuses into the indoor atmosphere.
When thinking of the Volcano Vaporizers, there are two primary models to choose from: The Volcano Digital and the Volcano Classic and the latter being the older model and the former the latest introduction. The two model may have some similarities in delivery but differ in functionality. The Digital vaporizer uses a digital heat sensor and an LED display that shows the temperature settings. The Classic vaporizer has a rotary dial thermostat for setting the temperature. The most notable difference between the two is the Classic model has a temperature range of 130° and 230°C while the Digital model can go as low as 40°. There are no Volcano Vaporizer health risks when using any of the models, but the Volcano Digital is the ideal option if you are looking for a device that can be used for a wide range of vaporizable materials.
The Volcano Vaporizer can handle a broad range of spices and herbs and each with its unique temperature recommendations for optimal vaporization. The benefits you hope to gain will determine the type of device to use. The use of vapor in preparation of meals is gaining popularity in toadying cooking techniques. But vapor has been widely used in aromatherapy. Whichever the need for the Volcano Vaporizer, this is an excellent choice for extracting the flavors and aromas from different materials safely and effectively.
7 Tips to Optimize Arizer Air 2 Vaporizer
After their original Air model, it seemed that Arizer couldn’t get any better. Somehow though they upped their game with the Arizer Air 2 vaporizer. Yes, as if the original model wasn’t awesome enough they’ve gone and added an incredible level of functionality with features that make this a must-have vaporizer. This is a great model that is portable and features hybrid heating. Plus it is covered by a two-year warranty making it a perfect choice for both the beginner and the veteran vaper alike.
Today we’re going to look at some ways that you can make your experience with the Arizer Air 2 Vaporizer that much better. Here are seven tips and tricks that will help optimize the performance of the Air 2, while keeping you in quality vapor for a long time to come. Of course, feel free to try your own methods. The secret to all great vaping is that experimentation is key.
Get It Charged
The first thing you’ll want to do is get your Arizer Air 2 vaporizer fully charged. The first charge can be half-done and few people realise how important it can be for a brand new vape. It’s possible that your Arizer Air 2 vaporizer will be partially charged when you first take it out of the box and so you could vape straight away. But don’t give into temptation! Hold strong and wait for the sweet vapor off a fully charged Air 2. You won’t regret it.
Optimize the Oven Temperature
First things first, let’s get this portable vaporizer tasting right. In order to get the very best from your vaporizer, it’s important to be using the correct temperature settings. Of course, much of this depends on your own personal preferences but we hope this guide can help. In order to optimize your Arizer Air 2 Vaporizer start by setting the temperature to the highest possible. Do this to remove the residue of any materials or substances that might be lingering from the manufacturing process. You’ll know you’re totally in the clear when there are no weird smells coming from the vaporizer at all.
Benefits of Pre Heating
We all know that preheating an oven is great for food but what about pre-heating our vaporizer? Well, if you want to get your first hits a bit thicker try first heating up a loaded stem in the oven. This will give your material an extra bit of time to soak up in the heat. Ultimately this will make your vapor thicker and more satisfying on that first inhale. If that’s not thick enough for you then try leaving it in for about a minute longer. After you can look forward to some thick clouds.
Like most things, this is a matter of personal preference. Most people think that the more finely your herbs are ground then the better your herbs will be able to be vaporized. And better vaporization leads to better quality of vapor which is the ultimate goal. So this isn’t totally untrue but that being said you don’t want your material so finely ground that it gets into the mouthpiece. For the Arizer Air 2 vaporizer, it may be better to stick with a medium grind. This way there’ll be enough large pieces to block any smaller pieces from being sucked up into the mouthpiece. And the Air 2 won’t have a problem with those bigger pieces either, so that’s not an issue.
A quick and easy little trick for loading your Arizer Air 2 vaporizer is to scoop up your freshly ground material by using the stem. It’ll be quicker and get your oven loaded much faster than any other method. Once it’s packed in simply pat it down using your finger. Make sure you leave around a millimetre of space between the bottom of the oven and the material. If it’s too close you’re going to end up with some burnt-tasting vapor and no one wants that.
Quick or Slow Draws
One of the great features of the Arizer Air 2 Vaporizer is its increased airflow. The original Air was pretty limited because of this same feature but not so with the Air 2. With this vaporizer, you can vape in the way that’s most comfortable to you. Whether you prefer quick hits or something a bit slower the Air 2 has got you covered. The airflow should be wide enough for anyone to get good pulls from.
It might seem simple but the very best way you can get make sure that your vaporizer stays in tip-top condition is to clean it regularly. You might be tempted to leave it for a while but the slow accumulation of dirt in your vaporizer will only lead to impurities in the vapor. Especially if left for a long time. Do yourself a favor and get the dirty work done now. When cleaning the inside of the vaporizer just soak a cotton bud in alcohol and wipe any of the dirty surfaces that might have come into contact with your materials.
So there you are, seven tips to help you optimize your Arizer Air 2 vaporizer. Hopefully, these little hints and tips can add a bit of an extra punch to your next vaping session. The Air 2 is a fantastic vape perfectly suited for both beginners and experts. Experimentation is the key factor to keep in mind, who knows what little tricks and tips you’ll discover yourself.
The Overlooked Price of Ignoring Canopy Management
As practitioners in the fields of horticulture and urban agriculture (fields we give important names to because they follow a proven process and mean something to us) – we growers and gardeners spend an inordinate amount of time fretting about the details.
All of us agree on the important things; the quality of our substrate, the stability of the environment, control over pathogens, deficiencies and excesses, good light, quality inputs, genetics, sustainability, biodiversity. All important stuff… but ultimately our efforts are geared towards producing quality and volume in our harvests.
How do we efficiently get from point A (seed) to point B (harvest) with maximum potential being achieved? It’s a bunch of work. And nothing important should be omitted.
That being said, there is a metaphor that bounces around about a barrel and how each of the staves must fit with the others for the stave joints not to leak. If a stave is not fit or built sufficiently, or is missing: The water will leak and the barrel can never be full.
This metaphor as an analogy to describe an often overlooked leak in the barrel of our common growing knowledge: The problem of: how do we hold up our plants?
In controlled growing environments it is of great importance to manage the canopy. Canopy management should be considered a stave in the barrel for a number of reasons:
- To get even distribution of the best quality light at the optimal distance on the greatest number of fruiting and flowering parts to achieve maximum yield.
- To train branches for topiary or bonsai structures.
- To ensure that the plant is given sufficient ventilation and is not exposed to any environmental extremes such as heat or air flow stagnation.
- To use ways of stabilizing the plant and then anchor tie-offs in such a way that the plant is not damaged because breakage means the loss of quality produce.
Some plants don’t need help; but some do, and most of us treat this as an afterthought. We spend time and money on all of the previously mentioned details, but then just jab stakes in into the root-zone and tie-off branches as they fall or droop. Pre-planning usually involves either a one-size-fits-all structure or some serious DIY.
That said doing something is the right thing to do: Why wouldn’t all of us serious growers make a plan and fret, in advance, over the details and how to get the biggest bang for our bucks? Canopy management will help to produce larger harvests and make everything else we do work better.
Jason Rider is the president of Thriving Systems Design. He can be contacted at [email protected] and you can visit their website at C-Bite.com.
Tips for Tissue Culture Cloning
Tissue culture, in horticulture, refers to the replication of a plant from its cells or tissue which are grown in a nutrient culture medium under sterile conditions. Basically, tissue culture is like growing a plant in a petri dish from just the tiniest slice of tissue. Most plant varieties can be successfully duplicated with tissue collected from the root, stem, leaves, seed, flower, or virtually any other part of the plant. Sterile conditions are crucial for the tissue culture technique because living plant materials are naturally contaminated with microorganisms. Tissue culturists must sterilize the starting plant material in a chemical solution, usually consisting of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite. After sterilization, the starting plant material is placed in a sterilized container which contains the nutrient culture medium. The nutrient culture medium consists of a correct balance of plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) and a nitrogen source. Too much auxin will result in excess root growth, whereas too much cytokinin will result in excess shoot growth. Once the specimens grow large enough, they can be transplanted into potting soil or other desired medium to grow like normal plants.
Tissue culture offers the horticulturist many different advantages. Like conventional cloning, tissue culture offers the ability to create large numbers of genetic copies of a desirable plant. Unlike conventional cloning, tissue culture can be used as a way to preserve rare or endangered plant species and can also be used to rescue embryos in distantly related cross pollinated species. The biopharmaceutical industry uses massive bioreactors filled with tissue cultures which can produce valuable compounds used as biopharmaceuticals. Another huge advantage of tissue culture is the ability to “clean” plant material of contaminates. In other words, a plant that has developed a disease or virus can still be propagated without bringing the pathogen along with it. This advantage alone provides an invaluable asset of preservation to modern horticulture.
Tissue culture kits are available for hobbyists to use. There are even some recipes online for creating tissue culture kits out of mostly around-the-house items. Because sterilization is so important, hobbyists who want to experiment with tissue culture need to have a dedicated area. Although tissue culture may be a fun experiment, other asexual propagation techniques are more practical for the average greenhouse hobbyist.